Wehrmacht - Allemagne nazie
L'armée allemande sous le IIIe Reich. Littéralement Wehrmacht signifie "puissance (ou force) défensive". L'armée allemande prend ce nom en 1935 à la place de "Reichswehr" (voir ce terme).
Zone - Résistance (France)
En zone Nord occupée, les régions étaient désignées par les lettres:
CA - Chasseurs ardennais - Belgique
Troupes d'élite de l'Armée belge. Signe distinctif: le bérêt vert frappé de la hure d'un sanglier. Prosper a raconté leur épopée en 1940 sur:
CA - Corps d'Armée
Un Corps d'Armée se compose d'un nombre variable de Divisions d'Infanterie et de Divisions Blindées ainsi que d'éléments de Réserve Générale (RG).
CIA - Commission italienne d'armistice - Vichy
La CIA siégeait à Turin.
DC - Division de cavalerie
OKW - Oberkommando der Wehrmacht - Allemagne nazie
Haut commandement de l'armée allemande.
Russian networks spying on Germany:
the Red Orchestra, the Turkul/Klatt and the Sorge networks
The division between Black Orchestra and Red Orchestra are supplied for facility of use: there are in fact a strong interpenetration namely through the Turkul-Katz network. Similarly owing the war work of Philby, Blunt…, the a systematic separaration between the British Secret service and the Soviet one is relative (they were admittedly suspicious Allies but Allies). Finally the Japanese commercial system of selling decrypted information to all parties in the war makes all these distinctions arguable. Classification, the only scientific approach to any problem, only works in the cental zone of the class, the closer to the borders of the subject knowledge gets, the more is reveals its artificial essence: life is linear rather than cyclical, economy is international or global, and philosophical thinking is universal. It has always been and will always be.
Aarons, Mark. & Loftus, John. Unholy Trinity: How the Vatican's Nazi Networks Betrayed Western Intelligence to the Soviets. St. Martin’s Press, New York - 1991.
Accounts on Walter Schellenberg p 160 refers to WS Memoirs on the Jahnke Turkul Klatt connection, p.170 Klatts central transmitter was in the Vatican, Evidence for Turkul possibly being Werther, p.266 WS suspicions concerning Heinrich [Gestapo] Mueller being a Soviet spy.
The best account on the Turkul/Klatt’s network and doings during WWII.
Accoce, Pierre. & Quet Pierre. La guerre a été gagnée en Suisse L'affaire Roessler
Librairie Académique Perrin, 1966, in-8, 318 pages. Translated in English as. A man called Lucy 1939-1945, W.H.Allen, London - 1967.
Interesting but unreliable account. Accoce & Quet found themselves refuted on a number of very basic points, and so would later publicly admit that their detailed explanation of LUCY's source(s), known as "WERTHER" ( i.e. the 10 "friends of Roessler from WW I" – as the OKW insider source), was a complete fabrication.
Arsenijevic, Drago. Geneve appelle Moscou. Robert Laffont, collection "L'Histoire que nous vivons", Paris - 1969.
Beevor, Antony. The mystery of Olga Chekhova. Viking Adult, 2004. French language translation as Le mystère Olga Tchekhova. Calmann-Lévy, Paris - 2005.
Bienal K., Krausher L. Die Schultze Boysen-Harnaek Organization in Antifascistischen Kampf, Berlin: Dietz Verlag, 1975.
Blank, Alexander. Mader, Julius. Rote Kapelle gegen Hitler Dokumentarbericht, Verlag der Nation, Berlin, 1979.
Costello, John. Tsarev, Oleg. Deadly Illusions/the KGB Orlov Dossier Reveals Stalin's Master Spy. Crown Publishing, New York, - 1993.
Central Intelligence Agency The Rote Kapelle: The CIA's History of Soviet Intelligence and Espionage Networks in Western Europe, 1936-1945, University Publications of America, Washington - 1974.
Deakin, F. Storry, G. The Case of Richard Sorge, Chatto & Windus, London - 1966.
Flicke W. F. Die Rote Kapelle, Hilden - 1949. Agenten funken nach Moscau. Kreuzlingen - 1954. Spionagegruppe, Rote Kapelle, Sowjetrussische Spionageorganisation in Westeuropa, in Freier Bearbeitung Den Tatsachen Nacherzählt, Wels, Welsermühl - 1957.
Foote, Alexander. Handbook for spies. Doubleday, New York, - 1949.
Garlinski, Jozef. The Swiss Corridor: Espionage Networks in Switzerland During World War II. J. M. Dent & Sons Ltd, London - 1981.
Glantz, David M. The Role of Intelligence in Soviet Military Strategy in World War II Frank Cass Publishers, London (United Kingdom) - September 1989.
Hoehne, Heinz. Codeword: Direktor: the story of the Red Orchestra. Coward McCann & Georghegan, New York - 1971.
Johnson, Chalmer A. An Instance of Treason. Ozaki Hotsumi and Sorge Spy Ring, Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA - 1964.
Kesaris, Paul. Rote Kapelle: The Cia's History of Scouting Intelligence. Univ Publications of America, Frederick (MD) - March 1979.
Kilzer, Louis. Hitler’s traitor: Martin Bormann and the Defeat of the Reich. Presidio, Novato California - 2000.
Even for people in disagreement with Kilzer analytical consclusion (the author’s case) as to whether Bormann could have been the Russian spy “Werther”, this book is well documented, well written and supplies one of the best synthetic view of Hitler’s war in the east, its main battles, its turning points, and the strategies involved. His description of how spying and military feats interlock on the front, is one of the best. It doesn’t carry David Kahn or Trevor-Roper’s well-informed but too slanted views in favor of the British. Historians ought to report as well enemy military feats like the ones of von Manstein or the major impact on the war of exceptional Soviet geniuses like Jukov. Hitler would not have been such a threat to the history of civilization if historians of our victory were totally right and our deciphering of Enigma transcripts had solved everything. A divergence of analysis and its very clear and fluent style should not allow to declassify this book from historical records to consider Kilzer a novelist. Generating a deeper thinking over such major events is just what the study of history is about.
Korolkow, Juri. Die Innere Front. Roman Über Die Rote Kapelle
Mader, Julius. Dr. Richard Sorge in Ilmenau, Geraberg und Suhl (1922/1923). Ilmenau, 1985.
Myer, Karl E. Brysac Shareen Blair. Tournament of shadows: the great game and the race for empire in central Asia. Counterpoint, Washington D.C. - 1999.
Perrault, Gilles. The Red Orchestra Schocken, New York - 1989.
Prange, Gordon W. et al. Target Tokyo: The Story of the Sorge Spy Ring. McGraw Hill, New York - 1985.
Accounts on WS p. 334-336, 433, 490-492
Pünter, Otto. Guerre secrete en pays neutre. Lausanne - 1967. Der Anschluss Fand Nicht Statt, Buchclub Libris, Zürich - 1967.
Rado, Sandor. Codename Dora. Aberlard-Schuman, London - 1977.
Accounts on WS p. 127-129, p.162-167
Read, Anthony & Fisher, David. Operation Lucy: Most Secret Spy Ring of the Second World War Hodder and Stoughton, London - 1980.
By 1980 the notion of a British link to LUCY would be further investigated by the two English TV writers, Anthony Read & David Fisher, with the publication of their book "Operation Lucy". Their angle was through one of Roessler's W/T operators - the English expatriate communist who had fought with the International Brigade in Spain, Alexander Foote. Unfortunately, the weak link in their argument was that both Foote and his supposed contact at MI6,Colonel (Sir) Claude Dansey, were both long dead by the time they concocted their hypothesis, and Read & Fisher had only circumstantial evidence with which to prove their assertion that Foote, through Dansey, fed LUCY, and thus Moscow, with selective ULTRA intercept information; thereby claiming that the main Soviet espionage network in Switzerland during the war was, for all intents and purposes, a mere puppet of Hut 3, Bletchley Park. (This of course does not explain the (ignored) dispatches from LUCY from as early as 1939 [well before ULTRA] fed gratuitously to the Western European powers concerning
German offensive intentions - furtively passed on by Swiss Intelligence to the appropriate attache's at the Embassy level.) Possibly some form of British nationalistic conceit altered the journalists’ accuracy: there is no doubt that Ultra rendered incalculable services but it cannot explain every aspect of the secret war.
According to West's deconstruction, Foote's less than savory treatment by MI5 in their post-war de-briefing of him, and their manipulation of his purported biography called "Handbook for Spies" (1949)*, belies any sort of MI6 allegiance or involvement with the hapless English Bolshevik, who would later die in relative ignominy in the late '50's. According to West, Bletchley insiders closely associated with Col. Dansey, refuted any connection with Foote and operations in Switzerland during the war. So, while Read & Fisher's hypothesis is never once confirmed- it stands, without confirmation, as unfounded speculation.
*(It was actually no more than a dimly-editorialized version of Foote's MI5 interrogation filled with easily refutable inaccuracies - one especially glaring that LUCY was actually a Czech named Selzinger!)
Roeder M. Die Rote Kapelle, Hamburg, 1952.
Rollof, Stephan. Vigl, Mario. Die Rote Kapelle; Die Widerstandsgruppe im Dritten Reich und die Geschichte Helmut Roloffs. Ulstein TB Verlag, 2002.
Roloff was one of the smaller agents in the Red Orchestra
Ruland, Bernd. Die Augen Moskaus : Fernschreibzentrale der Wehrmacht in Berlin : zwei Mädchen gegen Hitler. Schweizer Verlagshaus, Zürich - 1973.
In 1973 a former wartime Heer Communications Officer from within the OKW Zossen Complex (Zeppelin Camp) named Bernd Ruland published an account of his wartime activities entitled “Moscow's Eyes.” In this account Ruland claims that he caught three female "Helferinin" teletype operators working the “geheimschreiber” (secret writer) machines which sent top-secret orders to all Wehrmacht Headquarters, secreting carbon duplication tapes of OKW teleprinter messages. He challenged them, explaining later that he had been drawn into their conspiracy, and then became accomplice to their treason.
In his memoirs he described two of these “Wehrmacht Nachrichten Helferinin” by name only as “Maria Kalussey” and “Angelika von Parchim.” Unfortunately for verifications sake, Bernd Ruland died soon after the publication of his memoirs, and his family had very little to amend to his story.
Amazingly, when Ruland's book went into publication in a Hungarian edition, Alexander Rado himself wrote the Foreword, stating that, "it deserves more attention than the other books dealing with LUCY and the Soviet Intelligence ring in Switzerland for the following reasons: “the absolute reliability of the factual material presented, the accurate analysis of the events recorded, its anti-Fascist tone and the exciting nature of its contents.” Rado also went on to commend the book by saying that it “provides answers to those so far unsolved riddles of how, and by what route, Soviet Intelligence acquired such large amounts of information from the highest levels of the Communications center of the Fascist German High Command.”
Schellenberg W. The Labyrinth Memoirs of Walter Schellenberg, Hitler’s chief of intelligence, Andre Deutsch, London - 1956.
p.277: Schellenberg supplies his official version on the Rote Kapelle. WS relationship with Masson, the head of the Swiss secret service who arrested most of the member of the spy ring, is not mentioned. Most of the accused were fairly promptly released instead of being turned to the Germans, which casts a doubt as to WS true anti-communism.
Schramm, W. von. Verrat im zweiten Weltkrieg. Duesseldorf - 1967. (title translation: “Treason in World War II”)
Accounts on WS p.266-268 the Red Orchestra.
Smith, Bradley F. Sharing Secrets with Stalin: How the Allies Traded Intelligence, 1941-1945. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence - 1996.
Bradley beautifully put together rare information on the international intelligence trading of WWII. Based on information gleamed by both sides, the Allies were able to position troop movements and attacks. There might be too much emphasis on ULTRA and MAGIC: MI6 did do a fantastic work on the field and Admiral Canaris’ network supplied certainly more (and more detailed) information than the precious deciphering of German messages. In reverse, it is necessary to understand what synthetic work was done and how, as well as to what extent, it was communicated on all fronts.
Sudoplatov, Peter. Sudoplatov, Anatoli. The Memoirs of an unwanted witness: a Soviet spymaster. Little Brown, Boston - 1994.
Accounts on WS p. 91, p.159
Sweringen, Bryan T. Van. Mendelsohn, John. The Case of Richard Sorge (Covert Warfare, No. 7, Intelligence, Counterintelligence, and Military deception During the WW II Era). Scholars Review; ASIN: 0824079566; April 1989.
Tarrant, V. E. The Red Orchestra: The Soviet Spy Network Inside Nazi Europe. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York - 1995.
Accounts of WS p. 59 (The information level of the red Orchestra generated a meeting between Canaris, Bentivegni, Hans Kopp, and WS where it was decided that the Gestapo would be solely responaible for the fighting against the spy network), p.181-2 (negotiations with Masson head of the Swiss Secret services to push him into acting against the Swiss branch of the Red Orchestra under the threat of a German invasion of Switzerland).
This book details the devastating effect (to the Germans) of the soviet spy ring 'The Red Orchestra', whose many sources included a direct access to Hitler’s office. It tells the story of the beginnings, people, and fates of those involved. It tells of the massive info that was given to the 'Director' in Moscow, that the 'Ultra' intercepts the west was receiving was miniscule in comparison. For the first time some of the exact transmissions from the ring that the Soviet military were able utilize effectively.
It clarifies in an easy manner the significance of codes the ring used, (“Werther” was not a person, but a 'cover code' signifying the message was army related. 'Cover code' Olga was info about the Luftwaffe). It also shows the breadth and depth of the 'underground' of people involved, Communist and non-Communist. (Rossler was a right-wing conservative).
Drawn from sources recently made available from the ex-Soviet state, interviews with survivors, and established known data from the War, it puts to 'lie' Kilzer’s history book "Hitler's Traitor" pointing to Bormann as being the spy called ‘Wherther’.
Trepper, Leopold Le grand Jeu, Paris: Albin Michel, 1975. Translated in English as The Great Game: Memoirs of the Spy Hitler Couldn't Silence. McGraw-Hill, New York - 1977. [Memoirs of the Soviet GRU Officer who ran the Red Orchestra in World War II.]
Schellenberg accounts p.65 ff (Tukhachevski affair), p.146 (Meeting organized by Hitler for coordinating work against the Red Orchestra), p.188 (Trepper’s concern about nazi peace feelers to the West in November 1942), p.252 (Ws was not aware of the true objectives of the Great Game, info about Vlassov of Operation Zeppelin), p.258 (Schellenberg’s Swiss penetration of the Red Orchestra), p.262 (WS is mentioned in the short biography of Pannwitz), p.267 (Rivalry between Mueller and WS and its incidence in the Great Game).
Account on Sorge p.74
Poignant portrayal of the people who fought nazism during the 30s and 40s. For Leopold Trepper, a Polish Jew, who emigrated to Israel during the 1920s only to be expelled by David Ben Gurion for organizing unions that included Arabs as well as Jews. He later became a Soviet citizen, after he and his network operated not only under the noses of the Nazis but as well as under constant threat of Stalin, who was busy purging the Red Army even as the Nazi Germany was arming itself, and likewise sent spies to spy on his spies, thus endangering the Red Orchestra's delicate operations.
There is an appendix also that contains writings and letters from Trepper's associates
West, Nigel & Muller, Marcia. A Thread of Deceit: Espionage Myths of WWII. Random House, New York - 1985.
Chapter titled "Who Was WERTHER?"
Whymant, Robert. Stalin's Spy: Richard Sorge and the Tokyo Espionage Ring. St. Martin's Press, New York - December 1998.
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